Research Article
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Ferrata yoluyla doğaçlamada darbe kuvvetleri

Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, 60 - 69, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.36415/dagcilik.1028991

Abstract

Dağlık arazide hareket etmek sadece turistlerin veya sporcuların ayrıcalığı değil, aynı zamanda birçok profesyonel için çalışma ortamıdır. Bunlardan bir grup, askeri personel, diğerlerinden farklıdır. Silahlı kuvvetlerin görevde kalmasının farklı amaçları vardır - bir operasyonu gerçekleştirmek. Uzak maruz kalan arazilerde hareket etmek ve kalmak, belirli tekniklerin kullanılmasını gerektirir. Çoğunlukla ordular tarafından kullanılan olağandışı tekniklerden biri, ferrata yollarıyla doğaçlama yapımıdır. Bunlar çoğunlukla kayalık arazide güvenlikleri için tırmanmayan birimler için inşa edilmiştir. Konstrüksiyonun kendisi birkaç özellikte ortak tasarruflu rotalardan farklılık gösterirken, en önemlisi çelik yerine tekstil, dinamik halat kullanılmasıdır. Genel çelik tasarrufu rotaları, normalleştirilmiş testler, uygun inşaat kılavuzları ve kesin sonuçlarla kapsamlı incelemeler konusu olsa da, ferratas yoluyla doğaçlama hakkında benzer bir bilgi yoktur. Ferratas ile doğaçlamadaki çarpma kuvvetleri hakkında daha fazla bilgi edinmek için 8 farklı koşulda 80 düşme gerçekleştirdik.

References

  • Ashley, C. W. (1944). The Ashley book of knots (Vol. 13). Doubleday Books.
  • Evans, T. (2016). “A Review of Knot Strength Testing”, in: Int. Techn. Rescue Symp
  • EN 361 (832620). (2003). Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - Full body harnesses. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel.
  • EN 362 (832623). (2005). Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - Connectors. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel.
  • EN 365 (832601). (2005). Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - General requirements for instructions for use, maintenance, periodic examination, repair, marking and packaging. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel. EN 564 (942001). (2015). Mountaineering equipment – Accessory cord – Safety requirements and test methods. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel.
  • EN 892+A1 (942007). (2017). Mountaineering equipment – Dynamic mountaineering ropes – Safety requirements and test methods. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel.
  • EN 958+A1 (942008). (2017). Mountaineering equipment – Energy absorbing systems for use in klettersteig (via ferrata) climbing – Safety requirements and test methods. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel.
  • Goh, Y.M.; Love, P.E.D. (2010). Adequacy of personal fall arrest energy absorbers in relation to heavy workers. Safety Science 48, pp 747–754.
  • Federal Ministry of Defence and Sports. (2014), Austrian Armed forces field manual: Military mountain training. Supply number 7610-10133-0808 Vienna. 685 p.
  • Frank, T., & Kublák, T. a kolektiv. (2007). Horolezecká abeceda. Praha: Epocha, 663 p.
  • Knapik, J. J., Harman, E. A., Steelman, R. A., & Graham, B. S. (2012). A systematic review of the effects of physical training on load carriage performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(2), 585-597.
  • Kuhar, M., Dobovšek, M., Primožič, B., Davis, M., Lipič, L., & Pograjc, B. (2005). Military mountaineering skills. Defensor.
  • Michalička, V. et al. (2019). Pub-71-84-06 Speciální tělesná příprava Vojenské lezení. Praha. Vojenský obor FTVS UK, Armáda České republiky.
  • Michalička, V., & Telvák, R. (2021). Friction knots—Their strength under static load. J. Outdoor Act, 14, 7-16.
  • Morgan, D., Moore, K., & Mansell, R. (2005). Adventure tourists on water: Linking expectations, affect, achievement and enjoyment to the sports tourism adventure. Journal of sport tourism, 10(1), 73-88.
  • Pomares, J. C., Carrión, E. Á., González, A., & Saez, P. I. (2020). Optimization on personal fall arrest systems. Experimental dynamic studies on lanyard prototypes. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(3), 1107.
  • Samet, M. (2011). The Climbing Dictionary: Mountaineering Slang, Terms, Neologisms & Lingo: An Illustrated Reference. The Mountaineers Books. ISBN 978-1-594-85503-0.
  • Seifert, L., Wolf, P., & Schweizer, A. (2016). The Science of Climbing and Mountaineering. Routledge.
  • Semmel, Ch., Hellberg, F. (2008). Recommendation for the construction of klettersteigs (also known as via ferrate) and wire cable belay systems. German Alpine Club Safety Analysis Unit. Munich, Germany.
  • Ströhle, M., Haselbacher, M., Rugg, C., Walpoth, A., Konetschny, R., Paal, P., & Mair, P. (2020). Mortality in via ferrata emergencies in Austria from 2008 to 2018. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(1), 103.
  • Šimon, J., Dekýš, V. & Palček, P. (2020). Revision of Commonly Used Loop Knots Efficiencies, Acta physica polonica A, 3 (138). 404- 420.
  • Tedon (2021). Catalogue 2021/Eng. Lanex a.s., Bolatice.
  • Vogwell, J., & Minguez, J. M. (2007). The safety of rock climbing protection devices under falling loads. Engineering failure analysis, 14(6), 1114-1123.

Impact forces at improvised via ferrata

Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, 60 - 69, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.36415/dagcilik.1028991

Abstract

Movement in mountainous terrain is not only a privilege of tourists or athletes but also the work environment for many professionals. One group of these, military personnel, differs from the others. The stay of armed forces has distinct purposes – to fulfill an operation. Moving and staying in remote exposed terrains requires the use of specific techniques. One of the unusual techniques utilized mostly by armies is the construction of improvised via ferrata routes. Those are mostly built for non-climbing units for their safety in rocky terrain. The construction itself differs from common saved routes in a few features whereas the most important one is the utilization of textile, dynamic rope instead of the steel one. Whilst common steel-saved routes are a matter of thorough examinations with normalized tests, proper construction manuals, and precise results, there is no similar knowledge of improvised via ferratas. We performed 80 falls in 8 different conditions to find out more about impact forces at improvised via ferratas.

References

  • Ashley, C. W. (1944). The Ashley book of knots (Vol. 13). Doubleday Books.
  • Evans, T. (2016). “A Review of Knot Strength Testing”, in: Int. Techn. Rescue Symp
  • EN 361 (832620). (2003). Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - Full body harnesses. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel.
  • EN 362 (832623). (2005). Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - Connectors. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel.
  • EN 365 (832601). (2005). Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - General requirements for instructions for use, maintenance, periodic examination, repair, marking and packaging. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel. EN 564 (942001). (2015). Mountaineering equipment – Accessory cord – Safety requirements and test methods. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel.
  • EN 892+A1 (942007). (2017). Mountaineering equipment – Dynamic mountaineering ropes – Safety requirements and test methods. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel.
  • EN 958+A1 (942008). (2017). Mountaineering equipment – Energy absorbing systems for use in klettersteig (via ferrata) climbing – Safety requirements and test methods. European Committee for Standardization. Brussel.
  • Goh, Y.M.; Love, P.E.D. (2010). Adequacy of personal fall arrest energy absorbers in relation to heavy workers. Safety Science 48, pp 747–754.
  • Federal Ministry of Defence and Sports. (2014), Austrian Armed forces field manual: Military mountain training. Supply number 7610-10133-0808 Vienna. 685 p.
  • Frank, T., & Kublák, T. a kolektiv. (2007). Horolezecká abeceda. Praha: Epocha, 663 p.
  • Knapik, J. J., Harman, E. A., Steelman, R. A., & Graham, B. S. (2012). A systematic review of the effects of physical training on load carriage performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(2), 585-597.
  • Kuhar, M., Dobovšek, M., Primožič, B., Davis, M., Lipič, L., & Pograjc, B. (2005). Military mountaineering skills. Defensor.
  • Michalička, V. et al. (2019). Pub-71-84-06 Speciální tělesná příprava Vojenské lezení. Praha. Vojenský obor FTVS UK, Armáda České republiky.
  • Michalička, V., & Telvák, R. (2021). Friction knots—Their strength under static load. J. Outdoor Act, 14, 7-16.
  • Morgan, D., Moore, K., & Mansell, R. (2005). Adventure tourists on water: Linking expectations, affect, achievement and enjoyment to the sports tourism adventure. Journal of sport tourism, 10(1), 73-88.
  • Pomares, J. C., Carrión, E. Á., González, A., & Saez, P. I. (2020). Optimization on personal fall arrest systems. Experimental dynamic studies on lanyard prototypes. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(3), 1107.
  • Samet, M. (2011). The Climbing Dictionary: Mountaineering Slang, Terms, Neologisms & Lingo: An Illustrated Reference. The Mountaineers Books. ISBN 978-1-594-85503-0.
  • Seifert, L., Wolf, P., & Schweizer, A. (2016). The Science of Climbing and Mountaineering. Routledge.
  • Semmel, Ch., Hellberg, F. (2008). Recommendation for the construction of klettersteigs (also known as via ferrate) and wire cable belay systems. German Alpine Club Safety Analysis Unit. Munich, Germany.
  • Ströhle, M., Haselbacher, M., Rugg, C., Walpoth, A., Konetschny, R., Paal, P., & Mair, P. (2020). Mortality in via ferrata emergencies in Austria from 2008 to 2018. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(1), 103.
  • Šimon, J., Dekýš, V. & Palček, P. (2020). Revision of Commonly Used Loop Knots Efficiencies, Acta physica polonica A, 3 (138). 404- 420.
  • Tedon (2021). Catalogue 2021/Eng. Lanex a.s., Bolatice.
  • Vogwell, J., & Minguez, J. M. (2007). The safety of rock climbing protection devices under falling loads. Engineering failure analysis, 14(6), 1114-1123.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Sport Sciences
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Vladimir MİCHALİČKA (Primary Author)
Faculty of physical education and sport
0000-0002-7342-9903
Czech Republic


Vladan OLÁH This is me
Military Department, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University, Prague,
0000-0001-6873-0008
Czech Republic


Václav KUČERA This is me
Military Department, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University, Prague,
0000-0001-6802-1818
Czech Republic

Thanks Lanex company
Publication Date December 30, 2021
Application Date November 26, 2021
Acceptance Date December 24, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2

Cite

APA Michalička, V. , Oláh, V. & Kučera, V. (2021). Impact forces at improvised via ferrata . Uluslararası Dağcılık ve Tırmanış Dergisi , 4 (2) , 60-69 . DOI: 10.36415/dagcilik.1028991