Year 2020, Volume 3 , Issue 2, Pages 38 - 52 2020-12-30

Düğümlerdeki İp katları ile ilgili Kısa Bir Değerlendirme: Uygulama, Gerekçe, Kazalar ve Test
A Brief Review of Side Bends: Application, Rationale, Accidents and Testing

Robert Charles CHISNALL [1]


Tırmanıcılar uzun rotalardan inerken bazen iki ipi birbirine bağlarlar. İpler ancak düğüm noktasından birleştiğinden ve bu kısımda ipin genişliğinin iki katına çıktığından dolayı bir daha ki bağlantıya kadar düz bir ip boyu inmek haliyle önemlidir. Bir tırmanıcı, bir sonraki ipe hazırlanmak için her iki ipi de çekmeye çalıştığında sorunlar ortaya çıkabilir. İki ipi birleştiren düğüm, sürüklenirken kayaya, kaya kenarlarına, çatlaklara veya tabakaların arasına takılabilir (Baillie, TY-Tarih yok; Gommers, 2019; Kemple, 2006). Sıkışmış bir düğüm, takılmaya yol açabilir ve etkili kendi kendini kurtarma stratejileri uygulamadıkları sürece tırmanıcıların inişe devam etmesini engelleyebilir (Fasulo, 1996; Tyson & Loomis, 2006). Bu tür olaylar düzenli olarak gözlemlenmiş ve rapor edilmiştir. Geleneksel olarak iki ipi birleştirmek için kullanılan düğümler, tutarsız olarak tek taraflı, ofset, yan, düz veya dolaylı kıvrımlar olarak adlandırılan bir düğüm sınıfına aittir. Bunlar, şekilleri ve nispeten daha küçük temaslı taban alanları nedeniyle kaya yüzeyleri üzerinde sürüklendiğinde daha az direnç sağlayan düğümlerdir. Çatlaklarda ve tabakalar arkasında sıkışma ihtimalinin daha düşük olduğu ortaya atılmıştır. Öte yandan, ip katlarındaki arızalarla ilişkilendirilen kazalar bu düğümleri tırmanıcılar arasında bir tartışma konusu haline getirdi (AMGA & ACMG, 1999; Baillie, TY; Baillie, 1982; Chisnall, 1985, 2020; Evans, 2016; Gaines & Martin, 2014; Geldard, 2016; Gommers, 2019; Jackson, 2016a, 2016b; Helmuth &Burnhardt, 2003; Jones, 2012; Kirkpatrick, 2008; Lottman, 2016; Magnuson, TY; Martin, 2009; Martin, 2011; Mart 1976; Momsen, 2016; Powick, 2016; Prattley, 2016; Prohaska, 1998; Raleigh, 1998; Needle Sports, 2020; Siacci, 2019). Her ne kadar test verileri ve teorik modelleme bu konuda uyum göstermese de bazı yan halkalar diğerlerinden daha güvenlidir. Buradaki amaç, bu konularla ilgili mevcut bilgileri eleştirel bir şekilde incelemektir.
When climbers descend from long routes, they sometimes need to join two ropes together. This is necessary in order to rappel a full rope length to the next anchor because the ropes are doubled up and looped through the anchor point. Troubles can arise when a climber attempts to pull one line in order to retrieve both ropes to prepare for the next rappel. The knot joining the two ropes could get snagged as it drags against the rock, over edges, into cracks and behind flakes (Baillie, ND-no date provided; Gommers, 2019; Kemple, 2006). A jammed knot might result in entrapment, preventing climbers from descending any farther unless they implement effective self-rescue strategies (Fasulo, 1996; Tyson & Loomis, 2006). Such events have been regularly observed and reported. Knots traditionally used to join two rappel lines together belong to a class of knots inconsistently called one-sided, offset, side, flat or indirect bends. These are knots that afford less resistance when dragged over rock surfaces owing to their shape and relatively smaller contact footprint. It is purported that they have a lower chance of getting jammed in cracks and behind flakes. Accidents have been linked to side bend failures, making them a topic of contention amongst climbers (AMGA & ACMG, 1999; Baillie, No date provided; Baillie, 1982; Chisnall, 1985, 2020; Evans, 2016; Gaines & Martin, 2014; Geldard, 2016; Gommers, 2019; Jackson, 2016a, 2016b; Helmuth & Burnhardt, 2003; Jones, 2012; Kirkpatrick, 2008; Lottman, 2016; Magnuson, ND; Martin, 2009; Martin, 2011; March 1976; Momsen, 2016; Powick, 2016; Prattley, 2016; Prohaska, 1998; Raleigh, 1998; Needle Sports, 2020; Siacci, 2019). Some side bends are more secure than others, although test data and theoretical modelling are not in agreement. The purpose herein is to critically review available information pertaining to these issues.
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Primary Language en
Subjects Sport Sciences, Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Review
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-8822-8127
Author: Robert Charles CHISNALL (Primary Author)
Institution: Retired Academic
Country: Canada


Supporting Institution None
Project Number None
Dates

Application Date : November 25, 2020
Acceptance Date : December 26, 2020
Publication Date : December 30, 2020

APA Chısnall, R . (2020). A Brief Review of Side Bends: Application, Rationale, Accidents and Testing . Uluslararası Dağcılık ve Tırmanış Dergisi , 3 (2) , 38-52 . DOI: 10.36415/dagcilik.831394