Araştırma Makalesi
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Does Strength Training Applied to Football Referees Improve Physical, Physiological and Some Conditional Features?

Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 15 - 26, 30.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.36415/dagcilik.726492

Öz

The research was carried out to detect changes in physical, motoric and physiological characteristics of football referees as a result of strength training. 34 active football referees
working in Çanakkale participated in the research. Football referees were randomly assigned to 2 groups (control group-KG: age 22.18 ± 2.60, height 174.70 ± 7.08, body weight 67.00 ± 8.52, BKI 21.62 ± 1.97, Strength Training Group-CAG: age 22.41 ± 3.18, height 174.05 ± 5.57, body weight 67.29 ± 7.06 BMI 21.90 ± 1.80). The physical, physiological and motoric features
of the football referees before and after eight weeks of training and between KG and KAG were tested. SPSS package program was used for research data. In the study, whether there was any difference between the two groups before strength training was compared with Mann Whitney U Test. As a result of the eight-week strength training, whether there is a difference between the pre-posttest in both groups was compared with Wilcoxon Marked Test. The control and strength training group posttest results were compared with the Mann Whitney U Test. As a result, following the 8-week strength training, it was observed that football referees had a positive improvement in their resting heart rate, total body fat percentage, vertical jump
distance, flexibility, aerobic endurance, speed and agility performances. Accordingly, it is thought that the inclusion of force exercises in referee training will be more beneficial for the physical and physiological development of football referees. 

Kaynakça

  • Bangsbo, J., Iaia, F.M., Krustrup, P. (2008). The Yo-yo Intermittent Recovery Test. Sports Medicine, 38(1), 37-51.
  • Baydemir, B., Yurdakul, H. Ö., & Özer, K. (2018). Physıcal Activity Level in Elementary Education Second Level Children, Physical Self Description and Self-Esteem İlköğretim II. Kademe Çocuklarda Fiziksel Aktivite Düzeyi, Kendini Fiziksel Tanımlama ve Benlik Saygısı. Journal of Human Sciences, 15(2), 1049-1057.
  • Castagna C, Abt G, D'ottavio, S. (2007). Physiological Aspects of Soccer Refereeing Performance and Training. Sports Med. 2007;37(7):625– 646. [PubMed: 17595157].
  • Castagna C., Grant Abtand D'ottavio So, (2002). There Lationship Between Selected Blood Lactate Thres Hold Sand Match Performance in Elite Soccer Referees, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16(4), 623-627.
  • D. Castillo A, J. Yancıa, J.A. Casajúsb, J. Cámaraa (2015). “Physical fitness and physiological characteristics of soccer referees”, Science & Sports, 31, 27-35.
  • Gaoua, N., De Oliveira, R. F. & Hunter, S. (2017). Perception, Action, and Cognition of Football Referees in Extreme Temperatures: Impact on Decision Performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1479. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01479.
  • Getchell, B. (1979). Physical Fitness: A Way of Life, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
  • Krustrup, P., Werner Helsen, Morten B. Randers, Jesper F. Christensen, Christopher Macdonald, Antonio Natal Rebelo, & Jens Bangsbo (2009), “Activity Profile and Physical Demands of Football Referees and Assistant Referees in İnternational Games”, Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(11): 1167–1176.
  • Krustrup, P. & Bangsbo, J. (2001). Physiological Demands of Top-Class Soccer Refereeing in Relation to Physical Capacity: Effect of Intense Intermittent Exercise Training. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19, 881-891.
  • Mackenzie, B. (2005). 101 Performance Evaluation Test. London. Electric Word Plc., 96-117.
  • Mallo, J., Navarro, E., García-Aranda, J. M., Gilis, B., & Helsen, W. (2007). Activity Profile of Top-Class Association Football Referees in Relation to Performance in Selected Physical Tests. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(7), 805-813.
  • Mallo, J., Navarro, E., Aranda, J. M. G. & Helsen, W. F. (2009). Activity Profile of Top-Class Association Football Referees in Relation to Fitness-Test Performance and Match Standard. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(1):9–17.
  • Nathana, S., Gill, Bs., Hooi, Lomo, (2014). Effecets of Ten Week Training Programme on Repeated Short Sprints Among Football Referees of Malaysia. International Journal of Kinesiology & Sports Science, ISSN 2202-946X Vol.2 No. 3; July. Malaysia.
  • Reilly, T. & Gregson, W. (2006). Special Populations: The Referee and Assistant Referee. J Sports Sci. 2006;24(7):795–801. doi: 10.1080/02640410500483089.
  • Sargent, D. A. (1921). The Physical Test of a Man. American Physical Education Review, 26, 188-194.
  • Weston, M., Helsen, W., Macmahon, C. & Kirkendall, D. (2004). The Impact of Specific High-intensity Training Sessions on Football Referees Fitness Levels. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 32, 54-615.
  • Weston, M. (2007). Analysis of Physical Match Performance in English Premier League soccer referees with particular reference to first half and player work rates. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 10(6), 390-397.
  • Weston, M., Castagna, Ce, Helsen, W. & Imprellizzeri, F. (2009). Relationships Amog Field-Test Measures and Physical Match Performance in Elite-Standard Soccer Referees. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1 177-1184.USA.
  • Weston, M., Drust, B. & Gregson, W. (2011). Intensities of Exercise During Matchplay in FA Premier League Referees and Players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(5), 527-532.
  • Weston, M. (2015). Match Performances of Soccer Referees: The Tole of Sports Science. Movement & Sport Sciences-Science & Motricite, 87, 113-117.
  • Wong, P. L, Chaouachi, A., Chamari, K., Dellal, A. & Wisloff, U. (2010). “Effect of Preseason Corrurent Muscular Strength and High Intensity Interval Training in Professional Soccer Players’’, Journal of Strength and Conditionnig Research, 24(3), pp. 653-660.

FUTBOL HAKEMLERİNE UYGULANAN KUVVET ANTRENMANLARININ SÜRAT, ÇEVİKLİK, AEROBİK VE ANAEROBİK KAPASİTEYE ETKİSİ

Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 15 - 26, 30.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.36415/dagcilik.726492

Öz

Araştırma, futbol hakemlerinin kuvvet antrenmanları sonucunda fiziksel, motorik ve fizyolojik özelliklerindeki değişimleri tespit etmek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırmaya Çanakkale’den 34 futbol hakemi katıldı. Futbol hakemlerine 8 hafta boyunca haftada 2 gün (çarşamba-cuma) kuvvet antrenmanı uygulandı. Futbol hakemlerinin sekiz haftalık antrenman öncesi ve sonrası fiziksel, fizyolojik ve motorik özelleri test edildi. Araştırma verileri için SPSS paket programı kullanıldı. Araştırmada kuvvet antrenmanları öncesinde her iki grup arasında fark olup olmadığı Mann Whitney U Testi ile karşılaştırıldı. Sekiz haftalık kuvvet antrenmanları sonucunda her iki grupta ön-son test arasında fark olup olmadığı Wilcoxon İşaretli Testi ile karşılaştırıldı. Kontrol ve deney grubu son test sonuçları ise Mann Whitney U Testi ile karşılaştırıldı. Araştırma sonucunda, futbol hakemlerinde dinlenik nabız, toplam yağ yüzdesi, dikey sıçrama, esneklik, aerobik dayanıklılık, sürat, çeviklik performanslarına olumlu yönde gelişim tespit edilirken boy, vücut ağırlığı, yaş, Beden Kütle İndeksi (BKI), toplam yağsız vücut ağırlığına ve durarak uzun atlama performanslarında olumlu düzeyde etki olmadığı tespit edilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Bangsbo, J., Iaia, F.M., Krustrup, P. (2008). The Yo-yo Intermittent Recovery Test. Sports Medicine, 38(1), 37-51.
  • Baydemir, B., Yurdakul, H. Ö., & Özer, K. (2018). Physıcal Activity Level in Elementary Education Second Level Children, Physical Self Description and Self-Esteem İlköğretim II. Kademe Çocuklarda Fiziksel Aktivite Düzeyi, Kendini Fiziksel Tanımlama ve Benlik Saygısı. Journal of Human Sciences, 15(2), 1049-1057.
  • Castagna C, Abt G, D'ottavio, S. (2007). Physiological Aspects of Soccer Refereeing Performance and Training. Sports Med. 2007;37(7):625– 646. [PubMed: 17595157].
  • Castagna C., Grant Abtand D'ottavio So, (2002). There Lationship Between Selected Blood Lactate Thres Hold Sand Match Performance in Elite Soccer Referees, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16(4), 623-627.
  • D. Castillo A, J. Yancıa, J.A. Casajúsb, J. Cámaraa (2015). “Physical fitness and physiological characteristics of soccer referees”, Science & Sports, 31, 27-35.
  • Gaoua, N., De Oliveira, R. F. & Hunter, S. (2017). Perception, Action, and Cognition of Football Referees in Extreme Temperatures: Impact on Decision Performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1479. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01479.
  • Getchell, B. (1979). Physical Fitness: A Way of Life, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
  • Krustrup, P., Werner Helsen, Morten B. Randers, Jesper F. Christensen, Christopher Macdonald, Antonio Natal Rebelo, & Jens Bangsbo (2009), “Activity Profile and Physical Demands of Football Referees and Assistant Referees in İnternational Games”, Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(11): 1167–1176.
  • Krustrup, P. & Bangsbo, J. (2001). Physiological Demands of Top-Class Soccer Refereeing in Relation to Physical Capacity: Effect of Intense Intermittent Exercise Training. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19, 881-891.
  • Mackenzie, B. (2005). 101 Performance Evaluation Test. London. Electric Word Plc., 96-117.
  • Mallo, J., Navarro, E., García-Aranda, J. M., Gilis, B., & Helsen, W. (2007). Activity Profile of Top-Class Association Football Referees in Relation to Performance in Selected Physical Tests. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(7), 805-813.
  • Mallo, J., Navarro, E., Aranda, J. M. G. & Helsen, W. F. (2009). Activity Profile of Top-Class Association Football Referees in Relation to Fitness-Test Performance and Match Standard. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(1):9–17.
  • Nathana, S., Gill, Bs., Hooi, Lomo, (2014). Effecets of Ten Week Training Programme on Repeated Short Sprints Among Football Referees of Malaysia. International Journal of Kinesiology & Sports Science, ISSN 2202-946X Vol.2 No. 3; July. Malaysia.
  • Reilly, T. & Gregson, W. (2006). Special Populations: The Referee and Assistant Referee. J Sports Sci. 2006;24(7):795–801. doi: 10.1080/02640410500483089.
  • Sargent, D. A. (1921). The Physical Test of a Man. American Physical Education Review, 26, 188-194.
  • Weston, M., Helsen, W., Macmahon, C. & Kirkendall, D. (2004). The Impact of Specific High-intensity Training Sessions on Football Referees Fitness Levels. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 32, 54-615.
  • Weston, M. (2007). Analysis of Physical Match Performance in English Premier League soccer referees with particular reference to first half and player work rates. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 10(6), 390-397.
  • Weston, M., Castagna, Ce, Helsen, W. & Imprellizzeri, F. (2009). Relationships Amog Field-Test Measures and Physical Match Performance in Elite-Standard Soccer Referees. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1 177-1184.USA.
  • Weston, M., Drust, B. & Gregson, W. (2011). Intensities of Exercise During Matchplay in FA Premier League Referees and Players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(5), 527-532.
  • Weston, M. (2015). Match Performances of Soccer Referees: The Tole of Sports Science. Movement & Sport Sciences-Science & Motricite, 87, 113-117.
  • Wong, P. L, Chaouachi, A., Chamari, K., Dellal, A. & Wisloff, U. (2010). “Effect of Preseason Corrurent Muscular Strength and High Intensity Interval Training in Professional Soccer Players’’, Journal of Strength and Conditionnig Research, 24(3), pp. 653-660.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Barış BAYDEMİR (Sorumlu Yazar)
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi
0000-0002-8653-0664
Türkiye


Veysi CİRASUN Bu kişi benim
CANAKKALE ONSEKIZ MART UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-1355-1691
Türkiye


Hüseyin YURDAKUL Bu kişi benim
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi
0000-0001-6879-3658
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 24 Nisan 2020
Kabul Tarihi 27 Mayıs 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Baydemir, B. , Cirasun, V. & Yurdakul, H. (2020). FUTBOL HAKEMLERİNE UYGULANAN KUVVET ANTRENMANLARININ SÜRAT, ÇEVİKLİK, AEROBİK VE ANAEROBİK KAPASİTEYE ETKİSİ . Uluslararası Dağcılık ve Tırmanış Dergisi , 3 (1) , 15-26 . DOI: 10.36415/dagcilik.726492