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Kosum Baglama ve Baglama Dügümleri Olarak Sekil Sekiz Döngülerin ve Bowline'lerin Analitik Incelemesi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 4, Sayı 2, 43 - 59, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.36415/dagcilik.993072

Öz

Sekil Sekiz Döngülerin ve standart Bowlines'in kosum baglama dügümleri olarak güçlü ve zayif yönleri analiz edilir ve nitel ayrintilara ve nicel verilere atifta bulunularak karsilastirilir. Çapa uygulamalari da kisaca tartisilir. Varyantlara ve yedekleme dügümlerinin önemine dikkat edilir. Ayrica, hata nedenleri, dügüm arizasi, yakin çagrilar ve kazalar, davranissal ve teknik artiklik ve degisken uygulama standartlari incelenir. Bu dügümler mukavemet, sinüslük fonksiyonu olarak elastikiyet ve birlestirme yoluyla yapisal bütünlük açisindan karsilastirilir. Güvenlik, topolojik büküm dalgalanmasi ve sirkülasyon enerjileri kullanilarak analiz edilir.

Kaynakça

  • American Alpine Club (AAC). (1980). Fall on Rock, Failure of Knot, Colorado, Lover's Leap. Accidents in North American Mountaineering, 4, 3 (33), 34.
  • Ashley, C. W. (1944). The Ashley book of knots. New York, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc.
  • Association of Canadian Mountain Guides (ACMG) and the American Mountain Guides Association (AMGA). (1999). Technical handbook for mountain guides: Alpine, rock, and ski guiding techniques. Golden: AMGA; Canmore AB: ACMG.
  • Audoly, B., Clauvelin, N., & Neukirch, S. (2007). Elastic knots. Physical Review Letters 99, 164301. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.164301
  • Borwick, G. R. (1973). Mountaineering ropes. Alpine Journal, 1973, 62-70.
  • Bowern, C., 2015. Linguistics: evolution and linguistic change. Current Biology, 25 (1), R41-R43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.11.053
  • Brown, M.G., 2000. Engineering practical rope rescue systems. Canada, United States: Delmar Thomas Learning.
  • Brumbagh, C. (May 12, 2013). How safe is the bowline knot in different situations? The Great Outdoors. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://outdoors.stackexchange.com/questions/3798/how-safe-is-the-bowline-knot-in-different-situations
  • Budworth, G. (1983). The knot book. Kingswood, Surrey, United Kingdom: Elliot Right Way Books.
  • Budworth, G. (1999). The ultimate encyclopedia of knots & ropework. London, Great Britain: Prospero Books.
  • Chamarro, A., & Fernández-Castro, J. (2009). The perception of causes of accidents in mountain sports: A study based on the experiences of victims. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41 (1), 197-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2008.10.012
  • Chisnall, R. (1985). The ORCA rock climbing safety manual, (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: Ontario Rock Climbing Association, Ministry of Tourism and Recreation.
  • Chisnall, R. (2006a). The security of Bowlines and Figure Eight Loops as harness tie-ins: The principles of pre-knotting, post-knotting and concatenation, Part 1. Knotting Matters, 90, 14-20.
  • Chisnall, R. (2006b). The security of Bowlines and Figure Eight Loops as harness tie-ins: The principles of pre-knotting, post-knotting and concatenation, Part 2. Knotting Matters, 91, 18-21.
  • Chisnall, R. (2010). Knot-tying habits, tier handedness and experience. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55, 1232-1244. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2010.01451.x
  • Chisnall, R. (2016a). Structural recognition and nomenclature standardization in forensic knot analysis. Science and Justice, 56, 282-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scijus.2016.04.002
  • Chisnall, R. (2016b). Analysing knot evidence: associating innate habits with sophisticated tying tasks. Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, 22(2), 21-32. doi: 10.1515/sjfs-2016-0005.
  • Chisnall, R. (2020a). Analysing knots and ligatures: tying principles, knot characteristics and structural changes. Forensic Science International. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110272
  • Chisnall R. (2020b). A brief review of side bends: Application, rationale, accidents and testing. International Journal of Mountaineering and Climbing 3(2), 38-52.
  • Colby, B. N. (1958). Behavioral redundancy. Behavioral Science, 3 (1), 317-311. https://doi.org/10.1002/bs.3830030129
  • Couffe, C., Michael, G. A. (2017). Failures due to interruptions or distractions: a review and new framework. American Journal of Psychology, 130 (2),163-81. https://doi.org/10.5406/amerjpsyc.130.2.0163
  • Craik, F. I. M. (2014). Effects of distraction on memory and cognition: a commentary. Frontiers in Psychology, 204 (5), 841. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00841
  • de Boer, C. (2005). Postbag: New Bowline? Knotting Matters, 88, 44.
  • Douglas, E. (April 5, 2012). Climbing wall death due to knot failure. British Mountaineering Council (BMC). Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://www.thebmc.co.uk/climbing-wall-death-due-to-knot-failure
  • Evans, T. (2016). A review of knot strength testing. International Technical Rescue Symposium (ITRS). Retrieved July 8, 2020 from http://itrsonline.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Evans_Truebe.A-Review-of-Knot-Strength-Testing
  • Ewing, H. A. (1973). Knots and hitches in synthetic fibre ropes. The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Research Division Report, 1973.
  • Flashman, J. (2017). Tying in: The Bowline vs. The Figure 8 Knot. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://www.climbing.com/skills/tyng-in-the-bowline-vs-the-figure-8-knot/
  • Gommers, M. (2013). An Analysis of Bowlines. July 2013. Version 2.1c. Retrieved July 8, 2020 fromhttp://www.paci.com.au/downloads_public/knots/Bowlines_Analysis.pdf
  • Graumont, R. M., & Hensel J. J. (1952). Encyclopedia of knots and fancy rope work, (4th ed.). Cambridge, MD: Cornell Maritime Press.
  • Graydon, D. (Ed.). (1992). Mountaineering: The freedom of the hills, (5th ed.). Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers.
  • Gripped. (2018). Boy seriously injured in auto-belay accident in Ontario. Retrieved August 3, 2021 from https://gripped.com/news/boy-seriously-injured-auto-belay-accident-Ontario/
  • Hill, L. (2000?). Climbing free: My life in the vertical world.
  • International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC). (2020). Job description for event organization team. Retrieved September 3, 2021 from https://cdn.ifsc-climbing.org/images/ifsc/Footer/Officials/130117_DLD_JobDescriptionEOTEAM.pdf
  • Jackson, J., & Whiteman, M. (2002). Accident report: Not the knot: Bowline comes undone–again. Rock and Ice, 182, 30.
  • Kirkpatrick, A. (November 24, 2011). Ban the Bowline? (Posted 24 November 2011) Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://www.andy-kirkpatrick.com/blog/view/ban_the_bowline/
  • Langseth, T., Salvesen, Ø. (2018). Rock climbing, risk, and recognition. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1793. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01793
  • Lipke, R. (1997). Technical Rescue Riggers Guide (revised ed.) Bellingham, WA: Conterra Technical Systems Inc. Llewellyn, D. J., Sanchez, X. (2002). Individual differences and risk taking in rock climbing. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9 (4), 413-426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.07.003
  • Luebben, C. (1993). Knots for climbers. Evergreen, CO: Chockstone Press.
  • MacDonald, D. (2016). Fall on rock, Incomplete tie-in knot. Accidents in North American Climbing, 11 (1) Issue 69, 129. MacDonald, D., (2020). Fatal Lead fall on rock. Accidents in North American Climbing, 11 (4) Issue 72, 124-125. Martin, D. A., Boron, K., Obstalecki, M., Kurath, P., & Horn, G.P. (2015). Feasibility of knots to reduce the maximum dynamic arresting load in rope systems. Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, 1, 214–224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40870-015-0015-5
  • McKentley, J. (2014). Rescue knot efficiency revisited. International Technical Rescue Symposium (ITRS). Retrieved July 8, 2020 from http:itrsonline/rescue-knot-efficiency-revisited
  • Michael, T. (2005). Accident report: knot, don’t fail me now! Rock and Ice, 144, 36.
  • Microys, H. F. (1977). Climbing ropes. American Alpine Journal, 21, 130-147.
  • Moyer, T., Tusting, P., & Harmston, C. (2000). Comparative testing of high strength cord. International Technical Rescue Symposium (ITRS). Retrieved July 30, 2020 from https://user.xmission.com/∼tmoyer/testing/High_Strength_Cord.pdf
  • Nuttall, O.K. (2015). The RAM-BOW-LINE. Knotting Matters, 128, 16-18.
  • Olevsky, R. (2003). Better beta: A better mousetrap. Rock and Ice, 129, 88.
  • Osius, A. (2015). TNB: When your rope falls off–and 5 ways to prevent the nightmare. Rock and Ice. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://rockandice.com/tuesday-night-bouldering/tnb-when-your-rope-falls-off-and-5-ways-to-prevent-the-nightmare/
  • Osius, A. (2020). Stay safe: buddy-check your knots. Rock and Ice. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://rockandice.com/inside-beta/stay-safe-buddy-check-your-knots/
  • Osius, A. (2021). Is your knot tied? Even the best get it wrong. Don’t let it happen to you. Climbing. Retrieved August 31, 2021 from https://www.climbing.com/skillsis-knot-tied-5-tips-avoiding-common-cause-accidents/
  • Patil, V.P., Sandt, J. D., Kolle, M., & Dunkel, J. (2020). Topological mechanics of knots and tangles. Science, 367, 71-75. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz0135
  • Pegg, D. (2001). Techtip sport: no more tears — a trim knot that unties easily. Climbing, 208, 102.
  • Petzl®. (2006). Carabiner use and misuse. Rock and Ice, 153, 102.
  • Petzl®. (2007). Examples of dangerous carabiner loading. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://www.petzl.com/I/en/Sport/Examples-of-dangerous-carabiner-loading
  • Petzl®. (1995-2020). Knots. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://www.petzl.com/INT/en/Sport/Knots
  • Pope, J. F. (1972). Tests of knots. Summit, April, 18 (2).
  • Prohaska, H. (1988). The Double Bight Bowline. Summit, 34 (3), 22-23.
  • Prohaska, H. (1998). Gefahren bei anseilknoten [Dangers with rope knots]. Die Alpen 2/1998, 28-30.
  • Prohaska, H. (2001). Knotentests -Das verhalten von seilknoten [Knot tests - The behavior of rope knots]. Erweitertung zum Kongressl-band Psyche und Berg, 2001, 1-13.
  • Prohaska, H. (2005). Bowline failure. Knotting Matters, 88, 19.
  • Raleigh, D. (1998). Knots & ropes for climbers. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.
  • Raleigh, D. (2005). Double trouble? Rethinking the Double-Loop Bowline. Rock and Ice, 144, 106-107.
  • Rock and Ice. (2010). Bowline comes untied, climber falls to ground. Bowline comes undone — again. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://rockandice.com/climbing-accidents/bowline-comes-untied-climber-falls-to-ground/
  • Rock and Ice. (December 6, 2012). John Long seriously injured in fall. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://rockandice.com/climbing-news/john-long-seriously-injured-in-fall/
  • Roy, A. (2012). Bye Bye Bowline: Time for a new knot. Outside. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from http://www.outsideonline.com/1911861/bye-bye-bowline-time-new-knot
  • Schad, R. (2000). Analysis of climbing accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 32 (2), 391-396. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(99)00026-3
  • Schmidt, D. (2005). Tech tip trad: Twisting time. Climbing 242, 98.
  • Schubert, P. (2001). Sicherheit und risiko in fels und eis 01 [Safety and risk in rock and ice 01]. Germany: Bergverlag Rother.
  • Šimon, J., Dekýš, V., & Palček, P. (2020). Revision of commonly used loop knots efficiencies. Acta Physica Polonica A 138 (3).
  • Smith, B., Padgett, A. (1996). On rope: North American vertical rope techniques (new revised ed.). Huntsville, AL: Vertical Section, National Speleological Society.
  • Sry, V., Mizutani, Y., Endo, G., Suzuki, Y., & Todoroki, A. (2018). Estimation of the longitudinal elasticity modulus of braided synthetic fiber rope utilizing classical laminate theory with Unix N/tex. Applied Sciences, 8 (7), 1096. doi:10.3390/app8071096.
  • Steels, L. (2017). Do languages evolve or merely change? Journal of Neurolinguistics, 43 (Part B), 199-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2016.10.001
  • Vines, T. & Hudson, S., (1989). High angle rescue techniques. Dubuque, IA: National Association for Search and Rescue.
  • Warner, C. (1996). Studies on the behaviour of knots. In J. C. Turner & P. van de Griend (Eds.). The history of science and knots, Series on Knots and Everything – Vol. 11. (pp. 181-203). River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.
  • Wheelock, W. (1967). Ropes, knots & slings for climbers, (revised ed.). Glendale, CA: La Siesta Press.
  • Williamson, J. (2003). Knot failure. Rock and Ice, 127, 106.
  • Wright, C. E. I., Magowan, J. E. (1928). Knots for climbers. The Alpine Journal, 40, 120-141 (Part I), 340-351 (Part II).
  • Yosemite Climbing Information. (2020). Accident report: Incorrect leader tie-in, Five & Dime Cliff. Retrieved August 31, 2021 from https://www.climbingyosemite.com/portfolio/accident-report-incorrect-leader-tie-in-five-dime-cliff/

An Analytical Review of Figure Eight Loops and Bowlines as Harness Tie-in and Anchoring Knots

Yıl 2021, Cilt 4, Sayı 2, 43 - 59, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.36415/dagcilik.993072

Öz

The strengths and weaknesses of Figure Eight Loops and standard Bowlines as harness tie-in knots are analysed and compared with reference to qualitative details and quantitative data. Their anchoring applications are discussed briefly as well. Attention is paid to variants and the importance of backup knots. Further, causes of error, knot failure, close calls and accidents, behavioural and technical redundancy, and variable standards of practice are examined. These knots are compared in terms of strength, elasticity as a function of sinuosity, and structural integrity by way of concatenation. Security is analysed using topological twist fluctuation and circulation energies.

Kaynakça

  • American Alpine Club (AAC). (1980). Fall on Rock, Failure of Knot, Colorado, Lover's Leap. Accidents in North American Mountaineering, 4, 3 (33), 34.
  • Ashley, C. W. (1944). The Ashley book of knots. New York, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc.
  • Association of Canadian Mountain Guides (ACMG) and the American Mountain Guides Association (AMGA). (1999). Technical handbook for mountain guides: Alpine, rock, and ski guiding techniques. Golden: AMGA; Canmore AB: ACMG.
  • Audoly, B., Clauvelin, N., & Neukirch, S. (2007). Elastic knots. Physical Review Letters 99, 164301. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.164301
  • Borwick, G. R. (1973). Mountaineering ropes. Alpine Journal, 1973, 62-70.
  • Bowern, C., 2015. Linguistics: evolution and linguistic change. Current Biology, 25 (1), R41-R43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.11.053
  • Brown, M.G., 2000. Engineering practical rope rescue systems. Canada, United States: Delmar Thomas Learning.
  • Brumbagh, C. (May 12, 2013). How safe is the bowline knot in different situations? The Great Outdoors. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://outdoors.stackexchange.com/questions/3798/how-safe-is-the-bowline-knot-in-different-situations
  • Budworth, G. (1983). The knot book. Kingswood, Surrey, United Kingdom: Elliot Right Way Books.
  • Budworth, G. (1999). The ultimate encyclopedia of knots & ropework. London, Great Britain: Prospero Books.
  • Chamarro, A., & Fernández-Castro, J. (2009). The perception of causes of accidents in mountain sports: A study based on the experiences of victims. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41 (1), 197-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2008.10.012
  • Chisnall, R. (1985). The ORCA rock climbing safety manual, (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: Ontario Rock Climbing Association, Ministry of Tourism and Recreation.
  • Chisnall, R. (2006a). The security of Bowlines and Figure Eight Loops as harness tie-ins: The principles of pre-knotting, post-knotting and concatenation, Part 1. Knotting Matters, 90, 14-20.
  • Chisnall, R. (2006b). The security of Bowlines and Figure Eight Loops as harness tie-ins: The principles of pre-knotting, post-knotting and concatenation, Part 2. Knotting Matters, 91, 18-21.
  • Chisnall, R. (2010). Knot-tying habits, tier handedness and experience. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55, 1232-1244. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2010.01451.x
  • Chisnall, R. (2016a). Structural recognition and nomenclature standardization in forensic knot analysis. Science and Justice, 56, 282-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scijus.2016.04.002
  • Chisnall, R. (2016b). Analysing knot evidence: associating innate habits with sophisticated tying tasks. Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, 22(2), 21-32. doi: 10.1515/sjfs-2016-0005.
  • Chisnall, R. (2020a). Analysing knots and ligatures: tying principles, knot characteristics and structural changes. Forensic Science International. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110272
  • Chisnall R. (2020b). A brief review of side bends: Application, rationale, accidents and testing. International Journal of Mountaineering and Climbing 3(2), 38-52.
  • Colby, B. N. (1958). Behavioral redundancy. Behavioral Science, 3 (1), 317-311. https://doi.org/10.1002/bs.3830030129
  • Couffe, C., Michael, G. A. (2017). Failures due to interruptions or distractions: a review and new framework. American Journal of Psychology, 130 (2),163-81. https://doi.org/10.5406/amerjpsyc.130.2.0163
  • Craik, F. I. M. (2014). Effects of distraction on memory and cognition: a commentary. Frontiers in Psychology, 204 (5), 841. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00841
  • de Boer, C. (2005). Postbag: New Bowline? Knotting Matters, 88, 44.
  • Douglas, E. (April 5, 2012). Climbing wall death due to knot failure. British Mountaineering Council (BMC). Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://www.thebmc.co.uk/climbing-wall-death-due-to-knot-failure
  • Evans, T. (2016). A review of knot strength testing. International Technical Rescue Symposium (ITRS). Retrieved July 8, 2020 from http://itrsonline.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Evans_Truebe.A-Review-of-Knot-Strength-Testing
  • Ewing, H. A. (1973). Knots and hitches in synthetic fibre ropes. The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Research Division Report, 1973.
  • Flashman, J. (2017). Tying in: The Bowline vs. The Figure 8 Knot. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://www.climbing.com/skills/tyng-in-the-bowline-vs-the-figure-8-knot/
  • Gommers, M. (2013). An Analysis of Bowlines. July 2013. Version 2.1c. Retrieved July 8, 2020 fromhttp://www.paci.com.au/downloads_public/knots/Bowlines_Analysis.pdf
  • Graumont, R. M., & Hensel J. J. (1952). Encyclopedia of knots and fancy rope work, (4th ed.). Cambridge, MD: Cornell Maritime Press.
  • Graydon, D. (Ed.). (1992). Mountaineering: The freedom of the hills, (5th ed.). Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers.
  • Gripped. (2018). Boy seriously injured in auto-belay accident in Ontario. Retrieved August 3, 2021 from https://gripped.com/news/boy-seriously-injured-auto-belay-accident-Ontario/
  • Hill, L. (2000?). Climbing free: My life in the vertical world.
  • International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC). (2020). Job description for event organization team. Retrieved September 3, 2021 from https://cdn.ifsc-climbing.org/images/ifsc/Footer/Officials/130117_DLD_JobDescriptionEOTEAM.pdf
  • Jackson, J., & Whiteman, M. (2002). Accident report: Not the knot: Bowline comes undone–again. Rock and Ice, 182, 30.
  • Kirkpatrick, A. (November 24, 2011). Ban the Bowline? (Posted 24 November 2011) Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://www.andy-kirkpatrick.com/blog/view/ban_the_bowline/
  • Langseth, T., Salvesen, Ø. (2018). Rock climbing, risk, and recognition. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1793. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01793
  • Lipke, R. (1997). Technical Rescue Riggers Guide (revised ed.) Bellingham, WA: Conterra Technical Systems Inc. Llewellyn, D. J., Sanchez, X. (2002). Individual differences and risk taking in rock climbing. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9 (4), 413-426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.07.003
  • Luebben, C. (1993). Knots for climbers. Evergreen, CO: Chockstone Press.
  • MacDonald, D. (2016). Fall on rock, Incomplete tie-in knot. Accidents in North American Climbing, 11 (1) Issue 69, 129. MacDonald, D., (2020). Fatal Lead fall on rock. Accidents in North American Climbing, 11 (4) Issue 72, 124-125. Martin, D. A., Boron, K., Obstalecki, M., Kurath, P., & Horn, G.P. (2015). Feasibility of knots to reduce the maximum dynamic arresting load in rope systems. Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, 1, 214–224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40870-015-0015-5
  • McKentley, J. (2014). Rescue knot efficiency revisited. International Technical Rescue Symposium (ITRS). Retrieved July 8, 2020 from http:itrsonline/rescue-knot-efficiency-revisited
  • Michael, T. (2005). Accident report: knot, don’t fail me now! Rock and Ice, 144, 36.
  • Microys, H. F. (1977). Climbing ropes. American Alpine Journal, 21, 130-147.
  • Moyer, T., Tusting, P., & Harmston, C. (2000). Comparative testing of high strength cord. International Technical Rescue Symposium (ITRS). Retrieved July 30, 2020 from https://user.xmission.com/∼tmoyer/testing/High_Strength_Cord.pdf
  • Nuttall, O.K. (2015). The RAM-BOW-LINE. Knotting Matters, 128, 16-18.
  • Olevsky, R. (2003). Better beta: A better mousetrap. Rock and Ice, 129, 88.
  • Osius, A. (2015). TNB: When your rope falls off–and 5 ways to prevent the nightmare. Rock and Ice. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://rockandice.com/tuesday-night-bouldering/tnb-when-your-rope-falls-off-and-5-ways-to-prevent-the-nightmare/
  • Osius, A. (2020). Stay safe: buddy-check your knots. Rock and Ice. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://rockandice.com/inside-beta/stay-safe-buddy-check-your-knots/
  • Osius, A. (2021). Is your knot tied? Even the best get it wrong. Don’t let it happen to you. Climbing. Retrieved August 31, 2021 from https://www.climbing.com/skillsis-knot-tied-5-tips-avoiding-common-cause-accidents/
  • Patil, V.P., Sandt, J. D., Kolle, M., & Dunkel, J. (2020). Topological mechanics of knots and tangles. Science, 367, 71-75. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz0135
  • Pegg, D. (2001). Techtip sport: no more tears — a trim knot that unties easily. Climbing, 208, 102.
  • Petzl®. (2006). Carabiner use and misuse. Rock and Ice, 153, 102.
  • Petzl®. (2007). Examples of dangerous carabiner loading. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://www.petzl.com/I/en/Sport/Examples-of-dangerous-carabiner-loading
  • Petzl®. (1995-2020). Knots. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://www.petzl.com/INT/en/Sport/Knots
  • Pope, J. F. (1972). Tests of knots. Summit, April, 18 (2).
  • Prohaska, H. (1988). The Double Bight Bowline. Summit, 34 (3), 22-23.
  • Prohaska, H. (1998). Gefahren bei anseilknoten [Dangers with rope knots]. Die Alpen 2/1998, 28-30.
  • Prohaska, H. (2001). Knotentests -Das verhalten von seilknoten [Knot tests - The behavior of rope knots]. Erweitertung zum Kongressl-band Psyche und Berg, 2001, 1-13.
  • Prohaska, H. (2005). Bowline failure. Knotting Matters, 88, 19.
  • Raleigh, D. (1998). Knots & ropes for climbers. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.
  • Raleigh, D. (2005). Double trouble? Rethinking the Double-Loop Bowline. Rock and Ice, 144, 106-107.
  • Rock and Ice. (2010). Bowline comes untied, climber falls to ground. Bowline comes undone — again. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://rockandice.com/climbing-accidents/bowline-comes-untied-climber-falls-to-ground/
  • Rock and Ice. (December 6, 2012). John Long seriously injured in fall. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from https://rockandice.com/climbing-news/john-long-seriously-injured-in-fall/
  • Roy, A. (2012). Bye Bye Bowline: Time for a new knot. Outside. Retrieved July 8, 2020 from http://www.outsideonline.com/1911861/bye-bye-bowline-time-new-knot
  • Schad, R. (2000). Analysis of climbing accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 32 (2), 391-396. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(99)00026-3
  • Schmidt, D. (2005). Tech tip trad: Twisting time. Climbing 242, 98.
  • Schubert, P. (2001). Sicherheit und risiko in fels und eis 01 [Safety and risk in rock and ice 01]. Germany: Bergverlag Rother.
  • Šimon, J., Dekýš, V., & Palček, P. (2020). Revision of commonly used loop knots efficiencies. Acta Physica Polonica A 138 (3).
  • Smith, B., Padgett, A. (1996). On rope: North American vertical rope techniques (new revised ed.). Huntsville, AL: Vertical Section, National Speleological Society.
  • Sry, V., Mizutani, Y., Endo, G., Suzuki, Y., & Todoroki, A. (2018). Estimation of the longitudinal elasticity modulus of braided synthetic fiber rope utilizing classical laminate theory with Unix N/tex. Applied Sciences, 8 (7), 1096. doi:10.3390/app8071096.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Robert CHİSNALL (Sorumlu Yazar)
0000-0002-8822-8127
Canada

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 8 Eylül 2021
Kabul Tarihi 27 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 4, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Chisnall, R. (2021). An Analytical Review of Figure Eight Loops and Bowlines as Harness Tie-in and Anchoring Knots . Uluslararası Dağcılık ve Tırmanış Dergisi , 4 (2) , 43-59 . DOI: 10.36415/dagcilik.993072